Animal Law Review

First Page



While nonhuman animals in the United States are often victimized directly or as a consequence of environmental crimes, little is known about them or the role their victimization plays in federal environmental crime prosecutions. Through content analysis of 2,588 of the Environmental Protection Agency's criminal prosecutions from 1983-2019, we identified cases where identifiable nonhuman animal victims play a central role in the prosecution. We developed a typology of victims and the consequences of their victimization, and we explored the geography, charging statutes, and penalties. Results suggest that victimization is infrequent, acute, and clusters around toxic discharges and pesticide abuse stemming from negligent actions on the part of individuals and companies.

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Animal Law Commons



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